Mathematicians apply their knowledge to many different fields, including casino games. But, many inexperienced players do not treat gambling math as necessary to win games. This is somewhat true because winning some online games can only depend on luck. However, the application of mathematical operations can improve the chances of profiting in the long term, by choosing the most suitable games and casinos online.

This is because luck cannot always help in gaining. Players should focus on using mathematical methods to ensure that they always gamble in the best way. In this article, we have shown the basics of mathematics that players can practically apply right after the first reading. Our goal is for players to understand basic calculations, acquire knowledge and apply it in an online casino. Our suggestion is one of the \$1 deposit casino sites because you can apply them without risking too much money.

## The player’s wager expected value (EV) – The house edge

The fact is that players never have an advantage when playing any game in any casino. That is, no matter which game the user chooses, the casino (house) always has a greater chance. The house edge is the amount of money a player can expect to make in the long run by placing bets on the site where he signed up. This is why the house edge is also called the expected value (EV), or expectation. When a player’s gambling expectation is negative, he will lose money in the long run. EV could also be defined differently as the gross profit that computing from one game.

What is significant for players to know is that the house edge can be mathematically calculated. But why is it so important? The key is that EV’s mathematical calculation can show the player the game that will bring him more profit in the long run. That is, this equation shows how much return a player can expect from the game he is constantly playing on the casino site. Those games with more house advantage will pay off less. So, it would fall into the category of software that is not so profitable in the long run. Those games with a lower house edge bring more profit + in the case of applying adequate skills, this edge can be further reduced. Let’s explain this in one example.

In roulette, the house advantage is 5.26%. We will now try to point out how this can be calculated mathematically:

• Roulette house edge = (+5) (18/38) + (-5) (20/38)
• 368 – 2.632 = -0.263
• EV = (0.263/5) x 100 = 5.26%

The above equation applies to American roulette which has 38 numbers on the wheel. So the number 38 in parentheses represents 36 numbers + 2 zeros of American roulette. Number 5 is actually the assumption that a user has invested \$5. 18 is the assumption that a user bet on red or black. A bet on red or black will cover 18 squares on the roulette table. The remaining number of uncovered fields would be 20.

## Games that can have low house edge values

Table games that can be won by applying the skill have a lower house edge. These include blackjack, baccarat, video poker, and more. Blackjack is a card game with the lowest EV of only 0.5%. A six-game blackjack participant who uses a basic strategy can really make a good profit in the long term. But, as it often happens that players deviate from the strategy and make mistakes, there may be an increase in EV of 2%. On the other hand, we have baccarat in which EV can move in the range of 1.01% – 15.75% depending on the rules of the game. Also, video poker advantage varies depending on the selected machine. On online casino poker, the house edge is usually less than 3%. But it can even reach 0.46%. If you are interested, you can check out this list of the best gambling films of all time.

In the table below, we have sorted the online games according to EV values:

 Online casino game EV value Blackjack 0.5% European roulette 2.70% Video Poker 0.46% – 3% American Roulette 5.26% Baccarat 1.01% – 15.75%

## Random Number Generator (RNG)

Achieving mathematical coincidence in the past has been quite difficult. But, with the development of computer systems, statisticians and mathematicians have moved in to create a program that will provide fair casino games. RNG is software used by online casinos as a means to ensure fair and random outcomes. A program called Random number generator, as its name suggests, uses numbers that it randomly extracts. Then, he uses standard mathematical operations, like subtraction, multiplication, and division, to create new outcomes.

We must note that these programs are severely protected from external entrances and threats. Therefore, players should not be afraid that it can be manipulated in any way. Also, another thing we would point out is that software providers regularly update their RNG programs to ensure a fair environment for users. RNG is used in most online casino games like slots, roulette, blackjack, keno, and others. In roulette, the value of RNG dictates the outcome in the winning number on the roulette wheel. As for the slots, the number algorithm is converted into symbols that are displayed on the players’ screens. Finally, we will point out one obvious fact why RNG cannot be set solely on player losses. If the games never pay off, the casino would go out of business because the players would stop playing.

## Return to the player – The RTP of online casino slots

The value of RTP is a very significant indicator of profitable online casino slots. The way RTP can be calculated is quite simple. The mathematical equation for RTP is:

• the total amount of funds returned to players/the total amount that players have invested

Those online slots that are considered suitable for players have an RTP greater than 96%. We should note that there are also online slots that have a value of RTP greater than 99%. Since RTP is always less than 100%, it means that some of the players will always lose. Also, the slots operate on a random number generator program to ensure that everyone has exactly the same chances of winning. This means that a player may be lucky enough to get an RTP refund from for example the previous 5 users of the same slot. But, the winnings should be withdrawn at some point. If a player continues to bet, again and again, it may happen that RNG no longer benefits him. So, the percentage of RTP will no longer apply to him either.

## Slots that have a fairly low percentage of RTP and high volatility

Volatility refers to how much risk is associated with a casino game. High volatility games pay less but reward you more when you win. There is a special connection between RTP and volatility. Those games that have a high RTP also have low volatility and reverse. Let’s explain why it is so. The casino will offer you online slots that do not have an RTP over 96. Some of the online slots with a fairly low RTP value are progressive jackpots. Is it a smart move to play such games? The answer to the question is clear. Progressive jackpot slots give incredible winnings in case of victory. So, you should try them out.

It would not be realistic for a lot of players to be able to win a huge amount of money. Because then the casino would be at loss. The average value RTP of progressive jackpot games is about 70%. Also, the volatility of these games is high. One spin can end up winning a million-dollar jackpot, while a huge number of spins will win only a small amount or nothing. There is always a chance to match the wild symbols and win the jackpot eventually. On the other hand, there is an even greater chance that you will play and lose your investment. Although the percentage of RTP is low in jackpot slots, the risk could be worth the potential profit.

## Explanation of combinations

The combination represents the degree of probability that several individual events will occur simultaneously. To explain how the combination works, we will show you the example of slots. Let’s assume that you have joined the classic version of the fruit slot with three reels with 4 symbols each – number 7, cherries, lemon, and orange. To hit the jackpot, you will need three x 7. Now we will explain how you can easily calculate the probability of hitting these three symbols. First, you need to calculate the possibility of hitting one symbol. Since the slot includes a total of 4 symbols, the chances of winning 7 are 25% or 1/4. However, to calculate three hits of the same symbol you need to multiply the hit value of one symbol by the number of combinations you need. The equation looks like this:

• 3 x 1/4 = 1/64

So, you would have a 1/64 chance of winning the jackpot. In percentage, it is 2.77%. Combinations can be used in other casino games and even in sports betting.

## Final opinion on the use of mathematics in casino games

You could see that mathematical calculations in casino games play a big role. Also, you have learned some of the simple equations that can help you choose the most suitable game or online casino. Finally, we would like to emphasise that mathematics and gambling are two inseparable segments. You cannot expect to make the right choice if you are not versed in the basics of mathematical principles related to casino sites. If some parts of our mathematical guide were not clear to you, you can always return to the site and determine the material. Once you have adopted all of the above, you can practically apply the acquired knowledge. If you are lucky, you might find yourself in one of the 5 most profitable countries for starting online gambling.